1. What is a LiDAR?

LiDAR can be explained as LASER RADAR. LiDAR stands for Light/Laser Detection and Ranging; like traditional RADAR, except that as RADAR uses radio waves, LiDAR uses lasers to determine the range from a single "point."

2. How does it work?

Lidar calculates the distance by measuring the time the laser takes to travel to the object and return to calculate the distance. It uses a simple formula you likely have seen before:  D=(C*T)/ 2 . (distance)=(Speed of Light x Time)/2

3. What makes a LiDAR?

To make a LiDAR, you will need a Laser, a scanner, and a specialized GPS receiver. 

4. What does LiDAR capture?

When the laser is pointed at a targeted area, the light beam is reflected by the surface it encounters. A sensor records this reflected light to measure a range. When laser ranges are combined with position and orientation data generated from integrated systems, scan angles, and calibration data, a dense, detail-rich group of elevation points is called a "point cloud."

5. What is Point Cloud? 

Each point in the point cloud has three-dimensional spatial coordinates (latitude, longitude, and altitude) that correspond to a particular point. 

6. Why is LiDAR so significant?

The most significant advantage of LiDAR compared with other sensors is that, unlike cameras, LiDAR functions independently of ambient light. LiDAR achieves quality results both day and night without any performance loss due to disturbances like shadows, sunlight, or headlight glare. 

The traditional camera captures a 2D image requiring extensive computing (AI Algorithm) to translate the 2D image to 3D data. For LiDAR, every light pulse emitted provides specific information about the relative distance and size of the detected object. It allows the system to create a precise three-dimensional mapping of the environment, which results in a very accurate 3D reconstruction of a scene.